The Halo Effect- Jolito Ortizo Padilla explain this management principles through his book Human Resource Management in Action
The existence of the so-called halo effect has long been recognized. It is the phenomenon whereby we assume that because people are good at doing A, they will be good at doing B,C, and D (or the reverse-because they are bad at doing A, they will be bad at doing B,C and D) The phrase was first coined by Edward Thorndike, a psychologist who used it in study published in 1920 to describe the way that commanding officers rated their soldiers. He found that oficers usually judged their men as being good right across the board or bad. Few people were said to be good in one respect, but bad in another.
Later work on the halo effect suggested that it was highly influenced by first impression. If we see a person first in a good light, it is difficult subsequently to darken that light. The adage that first impressions count seems to be true. This is used by advertisers who pay heroic actors and beautiful actresses to promote products about which they have no expertise. We think positively about the actor because he played a hero or the actress because she is beautiful and assume that they therefore have deep knowledge about car engines or anti-wrinkle cream.
Recognition that the halo effect has a powerful inluence on business has been relatively recent. Two consultants , Melvin Scorcher and James Brant , wrote in Harvard review 2002:"In our experience CEOs , president, executive vice presidents and other top-level people often fall into the trap of making decisions about candidates based on lopsided or distorted information... Frequently they fall prey to the halo effect: overvaluing certain attributes while undervaluing others."
This is to consider the halo effect in the context of recruitment. But the affect also inluences other area of business. Car companies , for instance will roll out what they call a halo vehicle , a particular model with special features that helps to sell all the other models in the range.
YOUR CAREER QUESTIONS ANSWERED....
I received a letter from an employee in London. The letter sender wrote:
>>>I think I'm being bullied at work, but I'm not sure it counts as harassment. What can I do?
Workplace bullying is commonplace, although you might not think of it. It is extremely possible that someone whom a colleague or manager is bullying may not consciously realize it is happening and certainly may not mention this to anyone. Behavior that accounts to bullying includes unwarranted criticism, nit-picking, finding faults, exclusion, spreading rumours, being treated differently, being verbally abused, having written warnings imposed and micro- managing.It may be an individual against an individual , or involve a whole group or department.
There are number of reasons why bullying takes place. The most common is that the bully him or herself feels insecure or inadequate. By highlighting the failings of another, he or she is trying to give the illusion of superiority.
A bully's behavior can have a significant effects on an entire organization which is another reason why it cannot be ignored. Whole teams might be induced to hand in their notice if the bully holds a place in the senior management team.
In terms of the legal position of an employee who feels bullied, it is down to the employer to prevent harassing behavior. An organizational statement to all staff about the behavior expected will make situations easier for emplyers to deal with. It is not possible to make a direct complaint to a tribunal about bullying, but there are laws in U.K. that cover discrimination and harassment. For example:
- Sex Discrimination Act
- Race Relations Act
- Disability Discrimination Act
- Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations
- Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations
- Employment Equality ( Age) Regulations
However, before it becomes necessary to turn to the law for help, it is better to explore other avenues first. Speaking to the bully may be an option, in which case it should always be attempted. It is also worth considering:
- Is there an organizational statement that you can consult?
- Can you talk over problems with a line manager, union representative or
- Has there been a change in management or organizational structure that you
need time to adjust to?
Talking the problem through with a colleague should be a first port of call. Keeping a diary of incidents will also be handy, particularly if the situation does require you to go to a tribunal.